Transformer is an electrical device. It converts alternating current (AC) from one voltage to another without change in frequency. Transformers are of two types one is step-up and other is step-down.
STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER
Step down transformers helps us to convert high primary voltage to low secondary voltage. In step-down transformers, winding of primary coil have more number of turns than secondary coil. Converts high voltage & low current to low & high current
STEP UP TRANSFORMER
Step up transformers helps us to convert low primary voltage to high secondary voltage. In step-up transformer, winding of primary coil have less number of turns than secondary coil. Converts low voltage & high current to high voltage & low current
WHY TRANSFORMER WORKS ONLY ON AC SUPPLY?
In this Michael Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction helps us, which states that when an electric current applied to a coil which is said to be primary and due to alternation of AC cycle irregular EMF (electromagnetic flux) will generate.
This EMF induced voltage to the nearby placed coil which is said to be secondary coil. This is the reason AC supply only can generate irregular EMF.
REAL TIME TRANSFORMER
In real time when you use transformer it may be of 5 or 4 wires with rating of some how
|S.No.||5 wired||4 wired|
|1.||1 A of 12 – 0 – 12 V||1 A of 12 – 0 V|
|2.||2 A of 12 – 0 – 12 V||2 A of 12 – 0 V|
|3.||1 A of 5 – 0 – 5 V||1 A of 5 – 0 V|
|4.||2 A of 5 – 0 – 5 V||2 A of 5 – 0 V|
Below diagram of 5 wired transformer 1 A, 12 – 0 – 12 V. Here two wires are input for power source. And 3 wires T1, T2, T3 are of different voltages 12 V, 0 V, 12 V respectively.
When we take output from wires 12 V & 0 V it will give us 12 V but if we use 12 V & 12 V it will give 24 V with the same current of 1 A, so, one transformer is able to give us different voltage according to our requirement of circuit.
Suppose it is of 5 – 0 – 5 V transformer, then we are able to get 10 V of supply from the transformer with the same current.